Self-Discovery Portal

TAT Foundation Press: Always Right Behind You: Parables & Poems of Love & Completion

Always Right Behind You: Parables & Poems of Love & Completion by Anima Pundeer and Art Ticknor is now available in paperback and in Kindle e-book format.

"Forged in friendship, and written from an intimate understanding of the human dilemma, Always Right Behind You is an open window on higher wisdom." ~ Bob Fergeson, author of The Listening Attention, Dark Zen: A Guru on the Bayou, and contributing author of Beyond Mind, Beyond Death.

"Woven between the threads of Art and Anima’s friendship and spiritual journeys are snippets of wisdom, provocative questions and honest stories, all in the name of sharing this most profound and rewarding aspect of life. What a lovely book!" ~ Tess Hughes, author of This Above All: A Journey of Self-Discovery.

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Glossary of Sanskrit Terms

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Sanskrit Pronunciation Guide


abhasa [pronunciation: aabhaas]: reflection of consciousness
abhijna [ubhij^na]: direct perception
abhimana [ubhimaan]: attachment
abhyasa [ubhyaas]: practice
abhyasi [ubhyaasi]: one who practices
achala [uchul]: unmoving; hill or mountain
achit [uchit]: not sentient
acharya [uchurya]: scholar, learned man; a term of respect
adhama [ ]: lowest grade
adhara [aadhaar]: support
adhishtana [udhishthaan]: substratum
adhridha [udhr^dh]: weak; not firm
adhyaropa [udhyaarop]: superimposition
adhyasika [udhyaasik]: superimposed
advaita [udvait]: non-duality; incorrectly termed monism; a system of thought and a vedantist sect founded by Shankara
advaitin [ ]: non-dualist
adya [aadyaa]: primordial; original
adyatmika sakti [aadyaatmik sh^akti]: power of the Self
agami (a. karma) [aagaami karm]: actions of the present life expected to bear fruit in future births
agni [ ]: fire
aham [uhum]: embodied self; soul; the ego; the sense of "I"
aham Brahmasmi [uhum bruhmaasmi]: I am Brahman
aham sphurana [uhum sphurun]: the throb of Self-bliss in the heart
aham svarupa [uhum svuroop]: one's true nature
aham vritti [vr^tti]: the 'I'-thought
ahankara [uhunkaar]: 'I' sense; ego-self; 'the doer'
ahimsa [uhimsaa]: nonviolence
ajna [aaj^naa]: direction; injunction
ajnana [uj^naan]: ignorance; knowledge of diversity
ajnani [uj^naani]: one who has not realized the Self; unenlightened; ignorant of the Self
akara [aakaar]: form or shape
akasa (akasha) [aakaash^]: ether; space
akritopasaka [ukritopaasuk]: one who has not done upasana or meditation
alayavijnana [ ]: pure, self-existent consciousness
amrita [umrit]: immortal
amritanadi [umritunaadi]: the channel for the flow of consciousness from the Heart (Source) to the mind; the path by which it travels is termed archis
anadi [unaadi]: without beginning
ananda [aanund]: bliss; happiness; joy; Transcendence attained primarily through the affections manifests more as Bliss than as Knowledge
anandatman [aanundutmun]: self in the state of bliss
ananta [ununt]: endless; infinite
anartha [unurtha]: evil; worthless
anatman [unaatmun]: non-Self
anava [aanuv]: limitation
anichcha [unichchh; conjunct 'ch' and 'chh', pronounced without any vowel between; good luck!]: involuntary
anitya [unitya]: transitory
antah (antar) [untuH (untur)]: internal
antah karanam (antahkarana) [untuH kurun(uM)]: means of perception; the mind; the ego; the thinking power
antah pranayama [untuH praanaayaam]: internal breath-regulation
antardhana [unturdhaan]: disappearance from sight
antarmukha drishti [unturmukh dr^shti]: inward vision
antarmukti manas [unturmukti munus]: inward-turned mind; mind retained in the Heart
anu [unu]: atom
anubhava [unubhuv]: experience; realization
anushthana [unushthaan]: practice; attainment of knowledge
anuttara samyak sambodhi [unuttur sumyuk sumbodhi]: see samyak sambodhi
ap [aap]: water
apana [upaan]: the life-force that goes down
apara [upur]: the lower; inferior
aparoksha [upurok^sh]: direct; immediate; direct experience (as opposed to sensory experience)
apavada [upuvaad]: removal
aprana [upraan]: beyond manifest life; devoid of life
arati [ ]: divine service performed in the early morning or at dusk
archis [ ]: see amritanadi
artha [urtha]: money
arudha [aarudh]: attainment
aruna [urun]: red
arupa [uroop]: formless; timeless being
asamsakti [usumsh^ukti]: non-attachment; one of the seven stages of enlightenment
asamskrta [usunskr^t]: not pertaining to the impermanent; Chinese wu wei
asana [aasun]: yogic posture
asat [usut]: unreal
asesha sakshi [ush^esh saak^shi]: witness of all
ashram [ ]: hermitage
ashtanga Yoga [ushtaang yog]: Yoga consisting of eight stages of discipline
asrama [aash^rum]: one of the four life-stages of a spiritual seeker; the dwelling of a sage and his followers
asraya [ ]: ground of Reality (as opposed to movement)
asthira [usthira]: unsteady
asuddha [ush^uddh]: bliss
asukavi [usukuvi]: one who can versify impromptu
asura [usur]: demon; similar to a Titan or fallen angel
ati jagrat [uti jaagrut]: beyond waking
ati sunya [uti sh^oonya]: beyond the void
atiasrama (atyasrama) [utiaash^rum]: above the four stages of life
atita [uteet]: beyond
atma (atman) [aatm(un)]: the Self; principle of life and sensation; I AM; subjective moment of consciousness; in the highest sense, the Universal Spirit or the Supreme Soul of the Universe (see Paramatman)
atma dhyana [aatma dhyaan]: contemplation on the Self
atma jnani [aatma j^naani]: one who has realized the Self
atma nishta [aatma nisht]: abiding in the Self
atma prajna [aatma pruj^naa]: innate Self-consciousness
atma prema [aatma prem]: Self-love
atma sakti [aatma sh^ukti]: power of the Self
atma siddhi [aatma siddhi]: Self-realization
atma vichara [aatma vichaar]: inquiry into the Self
atma vidya [aatma vidya]: knowledge of the Self
atmasakshatkara [ ]: Self-realization; enlightenment
atmanusandhana [aatmunusundhun]: thinking constantly of the Self
atyanta vairagyam [utyunt vairugyum]: total dispassion
avarana [aavurun]: covering
avastha traya [uvusthaa truya]: the three states of consciousness, namely waking, dream and sleep
avatar [uvutaar]: incarnation of God
avidya [uvidyaa]: nescience; ignorance of our true nature; all consciousness or knowledge, so long as it is restricted to the subject-object manifold
avritta chakshus [aavr^tt chuk^shus]: introverted look
ayatana [aayutun]: repository

Return to Index

bahir pranayamam [buhir praanaayaam]: external breath regulation
bahir mukha drishti [buhir mukh dr^shti]: outward turned consciousness
bahir mukhi manas [buhir mukh munus]: letting the mind go out of the Heart; externalization
bahudaka [buhooduk]: a sannyasin who wanders about
bahya [baahya]: external
bala [baal]: child
bandha [bundh]: bondage
bandha hetu [bundh hetu]: cause of bondage
beeja [beej]: seed (see bija)
Bhagavad-gita [bhuguvud geet]: Hindu religious scripture, "almost wholly in the form of a dialogue between Krishna, who represents the Self, the Atman, or Cosmic Consciousness, and Arjuna, who symbolizes the egoistic man of action. It gives a brief resume of the Roads by which Union or Yoga may be attained. This is one of the most important manuals that point the Way to Cosmic Consciousness." (Franklin Merrell-Wolff)
bhagavan [bhuguvun]: God; the Lord; one who has realized his identity with the Self
bhagwan (see bhagavan)
bhajan (bhajana) [bhujun]: worship (of the Lord); singing God's praises, esp. in chorus
bhakta [bhukt]: devotee
bhakti [bhukti]: devotion; love (of God)
bhakti marga [bhukti maarg]: path of devotion
bharata [bhurut]: shining soul
bhashyakara [bhaashyukur]: commentator
bhavana [bhaavun]: contemplation of a personified deity with great emotion
bheda [bhed]: difference; differentiation
bhikshu [bhik^shu]: Buddhist monk, literally beggar
bhoga [bhog]: enjoyment
bhogya vasta [ ]: child
bhogyam [bhogyuM]: that which is enjoyed
bhokta [bhokt]: enjoyer
bhuma [bhoomaa]: all-comprehensive; the Absolute
bhumika [bhoomikaa]: stage
bhutatathata [ ]: the Absolute viewed as the universal womb [see Tung-shan]
bija [beej]: seed; source
bija-mantra [beej muntra]: a one-word seed-mantra or exclamation of power
bodha [bodh]: knowledge; Truth
bodhi [bodhi]: enlightenment; full illumination; the opposite of avidya
bodhisattva [bodhisuttva]: destined for enlightenment but wants to take all beings along
bodhikaya [bodhikaaya]: the body of the Absolute viewed as the fruit of enlightenment
Brahma [bruhm]: Lord of Creation; God as the Creator; "I am present"
brahmachari [bruhmuchaari]: a celibate; student stage of life
brahmacharya [bruhmuchurya]: celibacy
Brahmaivaham [bruhmaivaahuM]: Brahman am I
Brahmajnana [bruhmuj^naan]: realization of one's absolute being
Brahmajnani [bruhmuj^naani]: one who has realized the Self
brahmakaravritti [bruhmaakaaruvr^tti]: concept in the form of Brahman
Brahman [bruhmun]: the Universal Self; the Absolute
Brahmanishta [bruhmaanishtha]: one who is established in Brahman
Brahmarandhra [ ]: Brahma-aperature; opening in the crown of the head; fontanelle; "the tiniest of aperatures, in which is the silent, primordial sound, which gives you the impression that you are, but you really are not" (Nisargadatta)
Brahmavid [bruhmuvid]: one who has realized Brahman
Buddha [buddh]: one who is aware; a synonym for the Buddhakaya or Absolute state, where the Real Self is known for what it is
buddhi [same]: intellect; one of the four aspects of the internal organ; the determinative faculty controlling the sense organs; "It is also Compassion, in the highest sense, the very Soul of the Law of Harmony or Equilibrium" (Franklin Merrell-Wolff)


chaitanya [chaitunya]: consciousness
chakra [chukra]: wheel; subtle center of energy in the body
chakshus [chuk^shus]: eye
chanchala [chunchula]: changing, fickle
chandrayana [ ]: particular method of expiatory fasting
chela [ ]: student; disicple
chidabhasa [chidaabhaas]: reflected consciousness
chidakash [ ]: consciousness
chidananda [chidaanund]: bliss of the Self
chidvyoman (chitt vyoman) [chidvyomun]: expanse of consciousness
chinmaya [chinmuya]: full of consciousness
chinta [chintaa]: thought, idea
chintamani [chintaamuni]: wish-fulfilling gem
chit [same]: Absolute Intelligence, universal consciousness
chitakasa [ ]: Mental ether (all-pervading)
chit jada granthi [chit jud grunthi]: the knot between pure consciousness and the insentient body; the ego
chitta [chitt]: memory aspect of mind; the mental mode turned towards objects
chitta nirodha [chitt nirodh]: control of mind
chitta suddhi [chitt sh^uddhi]: purity of mind
chitta vilasa [chitt vilaas]: play of mind
chittaikograta [chittaikogrutaa]: one-pointedness of mind


dahara vidya [duhuraa vidyaa]: contemplation of the deity in the heart
dana [daan]: gift; alms; relinquishment
darsan(a), darshan [dursh^un]: seeing; vision
dasi [daasee]: courtesan
deha(m) [deha(M)]: body; existence
'deham, naham, koham, soham' I am the body; I am not the body; who am I? I am He.
dehatma buddhi [dehaatma buddhi]: I-am-the-body
dehavasana [dehuvaasunaa]: attachment to the body
deva [devaaH]: a god or celestial being
devakanya [ ]: a class of minor female divinity
devata [devutaa]: a goddess
Devi [same]: the Divine Mother; a goddess
dharana [dhaarunaa]: concentration of mind; one of the eight stages of Raja Yoga
dharma [dhurmuH]: teaching of Buddha; universal law; way or path; an entity of any sort - thing, idea, concept, etc; virtuous deeds; harmonious life; natural duty; inherent qualities
dharmakaya [dhurmukaayaa]: the Dharma-Body or the Absolute, viewed as the Ultimate Reality with which Buddhas or Enlightened Beings are one and indivisible
dharma dhatu [dhurm dhaatu]: the Absolute, i.e. the Dharma-Realm
Dharma Raja [dhurm raaj]: the Buddha
dharma sastri [dhurm sh^aastri]: one well-versed in the scriptures relating to dharma
dhatu(s) [dhaatu]: humors; constituent elements of the body
dhriti [dhr^tiM]: steadfastness
dhyana [dhyaan]: meditation; contemplation; the seventh rung in the eightfold ladder of yoga
dhyana siddhi [dhyaan siddhi]: successful meditation
dikpalas [dikpulus]: gods who protect the various quarters
diksha [dik^sh]: spiritual initiation
divya chakshus [divya chuk^shus]: divine eye
drashta [drushtaa]: seer
dridha [dr^dh]: firm
drik [dr^k]: he who sees; the subject
drishti [dr^shti]: look; seeing
drishti srishti [dr^shti sr^shti]: simultaneous creation
drisya [dr^sh^ya]: that which is seen; the object
drisya vilaya [dr^sh^ya viluya]: disappearance of the objective world
drisyanuviddha [dr^sh^yaanuviddh]: associated with something seen
dukha [dukh]: misery; frustration
dvaita [dvait]: duality
dvandva [dvundv]: pair of opposites
dvividha (dwividha) [dvividh]: two-fold


eka [ek]: one
ekagrata [ekaagrutaa]: concentration
ekanta vasa [ekaant vaas]: free from mental concepts; "dwelling in mental solitude"


Ganapati [gunuputi]: the elder son of Siva, the remover of obstacles; same as Ganesha, the chief of Siva's hosts
ganapati [gunuputi]: consciousness
ganesan [ ]: darkness
ganja [gunj]: a narcotic; hashish
gate [guta]: gone
gatha [ ]: a verse, usually of a sacred kind
Gayatri [gaayutri]: a sacred Vedic mantra
gita [geet]: song
gnana [j^naan]: see jnana
gnani [j^naani]: see jnani
gopuram [same]: temple tower
granthi [grunthi]: knot
granthi nasam [grunthi naash^um]: destruction of the knot (of ignorance)
grihastha [gr^husthaaH]: householder
grihini [gr^hini]: housewife
guna(s) [gun]: the three fundamental qualities, tendencies or stresses that underlie all manifestations: sattva, rajas and tamas
gunatita [gunaateet]: one who has transcended the gunas
guru [same]: a spiritual master
guru kripa [guru kr^puH]: guru's grace


hamsa [hums]: advanced sannyasi
Hanuman [ ]: a powerful deity, son of the Wind god; great devotee of Sri Rama; famous monkey who helped Rama in his fight with Ravana
hasta [hust]: hand
hatha yoga [hutha yog]: a form of yoga involving body postures, and for gaining control over Prana
hetu [same]: cause, reason
hinayana [heenuyaan]: one of the two major divisions of Buddhism; prevalent in Southeast Asia
hiranyagarbha [hirunyugurbh]: universal consciousness; cosmic mind; cosmic egg; the Unmanifested mind (see mahat tattva), the "golden womb"
homa [hom]: sacrifice in fire
hridaya(m) [hr^duya(M)]: heart; spiritual center of the body
hridaya granthi [hr^duya grunthi]: knot of the heart; the idea that one is one's body
hrit [hr^t]: heart
hrit pundarika [hr^t pundureek]: the heart lotus


ichcha [ichchh; conjunct 'ch' and 'chh', pronounced without any vowel between]: desire; will
idam [idum]: this
Indra [indraa]: Lord of the devas; first student of Brahma vidya
indriya(s) [indriyuH]: senses
Isa [eesh^]: Supreme Lord
ishta devata [isht devutaa]: the god one likes to worship
Isvara (Iswara) [eesh^vur]: God; the Supreme Being in His aspect of Lord of the worlds
Isvara anugraha [eesh^vur unugruha]: God's grace
Isvara drishti [eesh^vur dr^shti]: seeing everything as God
Isvara prasada [eesh^vur prusaad]: God's grace
Isvara svarupa [eesh^vur svuroop]: the true form of God


jada [jud]: insentient
jaganmaya [jugunmaaya]: the mystery of the world
jagat [jugut]: world; changing
jagrat [jaagrut]: waking state
jagrat sushupti [jaagrut sushuptiH]: aware or awake while asleep; being aware but not concerned
jai [same]: victory
jala [jula]: water
janma [junma]: birth
japa [jup]: repetition of a sacred word or syllable or name of God
japa karta [jup kurtaa]: one who does japa
jirna [jeern]: decayed
jiva [jeev]: individual soul or ego
jivanmukta [jeevunmukt]: realized soul
jivanmukti [jeevunmukti]: liberation while alive
jivatman [jeevaatmun]: the individual self
jnana(m) [j^naan(aM)]: knowledge of the Absolute; enlightenment; Supreme Knowledge; Self-realization
jnana bhumika(s) [j^naan bhoomikaa]: stages of knowledge (seven)
jnana chakshus [j^naan chuk^shus]: eye of wisdom
jnana drishti [j^naan dr^shti]: wisdom-insight
jnana grantha [j^naan gruntha]: Vedantic works
jnana lakshana [j^naan luk^shun]: sign of wisdom
jnana marga [j^naan maarg]: path of knowledge
jnana vichara [j^naan vichaar]: inquiry regarding knowledge
jnana yoga [j^naan yog]: the method of realizing the Absolute through knowledge
jnanagni [j^naanaagni]: fire of wisdom
jnanameva chakshus [ ]: All-seeing eyes
jnanendriya [j^nunendriya]: sense organ
jnani [j^naani]: sage; one who has realized the Self
jothi (jyoti) [jyotiH]: light; effulgence


Kailas [kailaas]: a mountain in the Himalayas reputed to be the home of Siva
kaivalya [kaivulya]: Absolute Oneness; final emancipation
kali yuga [kuli yug]: the last of the four ages of the world
kalpana [kulpunaa]: idea; imagination of the mind; creation
kama [kaam]: desire; physical love; lust
kantha [kuntha]: throat
kanthabharana [kunthaabhurun]: neck ornament
kanya [kunyaa]: virgin
kara [ ]: a combining form meaning achieved or achievement
karana [kaarun]: cause
karana sarira [kaarun sh^ureer]: causal body
karma [kurm]: action; work; deeds; also the result of action
karma marga [kurm maarg]: path of ritual, religious duties, and action
karma samya [kurm saamya]: good and bad actions in equal proportions
karma traya [kurm truya]: the three kinds of karma, namely sanchita, agami and prarabdha
karma yoga [kurm yog]: the spiritual path of action
karmendriya [kurmendriya]: organ of action
karpura arati [kurpoor aaruti]: the waving of lighted camphor during puja
karta [kurtaa]: he who does an act; doer
kartrtva [kurtr^tva]: doership
kartrtva buddhi [kurtr^tva buddhi]: sense of being the doer
kashaya [kushaaya]: latent impurity
kashaya [kaashaaya]: ochre-colored garment
kayakalpa [kaayukulp]: medicinal preparation for prolonging life
kayasiddhi [kaayusiddhi]: making the body proof against injury
kendra [ ]: center; heart
kevala kumbhaka [kevul kumbhuk]: retention of breath leading to stilling of the mind
kevala nirvikalpa [kevul nirvikulp]: the state of remaining without concepts; bliss of vijnana
kevala samadhi [kevul sumaadhi]: samadhi in which activities of body and mind are only merged
khanda [khund]: division
khyati [khyaati]: theory
klesa [klesh^]: a defilement, passion etc.
kousalam [koush^ulum]: skill
kosa [ ]: sheath
krama mukti [krum mukti]: liberation by degrees
krama srishti [krum sr^shti]: gradual creation
krida [kr^d]: play; pastime
kritopasaka [kritopaasuk]: one who has done upasana or meditation
kriya [ ]: physical action
krodha [krodh]: anger
kshanti [k^shunti]: forebearance
kshetra [k^shetra]: temple; in Yoga, field of the body
Kshetrajna [k^shetruj^na]: the conscious principle (Knower) in the field of the body; the absolute witness of the three states of the self - waking, dream and sleep
kshipta [k^shipt]: active
kumbha [kumbh]: pot used for keeping water
kumbhaka [kumbhuk]: retention of breath
kumkuma [same]: vermilion powder applied to the forehead
kundalini [kundulini]: primordial cosmic energy located in the individual; mystic circle of three and a half coils situated in the umbilical region; yogic principle of serpent power
kutichaka [kuteechuk]: a sannyasin who lives permanently in a hut
kuvasana [kuvaasun]: bad tendency


laghu [lughu]: light; easy
lakshana [luk^shun]: sign; definition
lakshya [luk^shya]: aim; target; goal; attention
lakshyartha [luk^shyaartha]: implied meaning
laya [luya]: dissolution; merging; in Yoga, absorption of breath and mind in the heart
lila (leela) [leela]: play or sport
linga [ling]: symbol
linga sarira [ling sh^ureer]: subtle body
loka [lok]: world; that which is seen
loukika [loukik]: worldly


madhya [mudhya]: center; mixed; middling
madhyama [mudhyum]: a stage in uttering sounds; middle grade
mahadakash [ ]: the entire universe; world of action
maha [ ]: great
maharshi (Maha Rishi) [muhur^shi]: great rishi or sage
mahaparinirvana [muhaapurinirvaan?]: ultimate Nirvana (Nirvana can be achieved in this lifetime; ultimate Nirvana then follows at death)
mahasunya [muhaash^oonya]: great void
mahat [muhut]: intellectual principle as source of ahankara
mahat tattva (mahattava) [muhaat tuttva]: essential principle of being; the great principle (from the Absolute emantes the Unmanifest, from it Mahat, and from Mahat the ahankara)
mahatma [muhaatmaa]: lofty soul; highly spiritual person
mahavakya(s) [muhaavaakyaa]: the four main sentences proclaiming the truth of Brahman, one from each Veda
mahayana [muhaayaan]: one of the two major divisions of Buddhism, prevalent in the more northerly countries of Asia - China, Tibet, Japan etc.
Mahesvara [muhesh^vuraH]: one of the five aspects of Siva, as veiling the Truth from souls till their karma is completely worked out; also, Siva as Para-Brahman, the Absolute
malaparipaka [mulupuripaak]: complete removal of impurity
malina [mulin]: impure
manana [munan]: constant thinking over what has been heard; reflection; meditation; the second of the three stages of Vedantic realization
manas [munus]: mind, reason, mentality; also used for the aggregate of chitta, buddhi, manas and ahankara
mani [muni]: jewel
manolaya [munoluya]: (temporary) subsidence of the mind; dissolution of the mind into its cause
manomaya kosa [munomaaya kosh^]: sheath of mind
manonasa [munonaash^]: extinction of the mind
manonigraha [munonigruha]: rendering the mind quiescent
manta [muntaa]: thinker
mantra (mantram) [muntra(M)]: sacred syllable(s) used in meditation
mantra japa [muntra jap]: repetition of a mantra
marana [muruN]: causing death through supernatural powers
marga [maarg]: path
maru marichika [muru mureechikaa]: mirage seen in a desert
math (mutt) [ ]: meeting place; abode of Sadhus
mati [muti]: thinking power
mauna [same]: see mouna
maya [maayaa]: illusion; the power of Brahman by which it manifests the world; the veiling and projecting power of the universe
maya vada [maayaa vaad]: the doctrine of maya
mayavadi [ ]: one who says the world is an illusion
mayasakti [maayaash^ukti]: the power of maya
medha [medhaa]: intellect
mitha [ ]: non-existent
mithya [mithyaa]: the false; unreal
moda [mod]: joy which is higher than priya
moksha [mok^sh]: Liberation; freedom from transmigration
moodha [moodh]: dull
moola [mool]: root; source
mooladhara [moolaadhaar]: one of the yogic centers of the body
mouna (mauna) [same]: Silence; the Truth of Brahman, expressed by the Brahman-knower by his mere abidence in stillness
mouna diksha [ ]: initiation by silence
mriga trishna [mr^g tr^shn]: water of a mirage
mudra [mudraa]: hand pose in worship and dance
mukta [same]: one who is liberated
mukti [same]: Liberation
mula [ ]: origin; root; base
mulavidya [moolaavidyaa]: primal ignorance
mumukshu [mumuk^shu]: one who aspires to Liberation; the first stage, when the seeker feels that there is something beyond this material universe but is still identified with his body-mind; the next stage is that of the sadhaka
mumukshutva [mumuk^shutva]: desire for Liberation
muni [same]: sage; austere person
murti [same]: idol


na medhaya [nuh medhuya]: not by the intellect
nada [naad]: mystic sound; subtle sound accompanied by an effulgence
nadasvaram [naadusvurum]: the pipe of the South Indian piper
nadi(s) [naadi]: yogic nerves conveying the life force; main ones are Ida, Pingala and Sushumna
naham [naahum]: I am not
naishtika brahmacharya [naishtik bruhmuchurya]: lifelong celibacy
nama [naam]: name; the name of God
nama japa [naam jup]: repetition of the name of God
nama sankirtan [naam sungkeertun]: singing the names of God
nama smarana [naam smurun]: remembering and repeating the name of God
namarupa [numurup]: name and form; the nature of the world
namaskar(a) [numuskaar]: homage; prostration before God or Guru
nana [naanaa]: diversity
naraka [nuruk]: hell
nasa [naash^]: destruction
nava [nuv]: new
neti-neti [same]: "not this, not this"; negating all names and forms in order to arrive at the eternal underlying truth
nididhyasana [nididhyaasun]: the last of the three stages of vedantic realization; uninterrupted contemplation
nijananda [nijaanund]: true bliss
nirakara upasana [niraakaar upaasunaa]: meditation on the formless
nirasa [niraash^]: desirelessness
nirguna [nirgun]: without attributes
Nirgunabrahman [ ]: the impersonal, attributeless Absolute
nirguna upasana [nirgun upaasunaa]: meditation on the attributeless Brahman
nirmanakaya [ ]: the Body of Transformation in which Buddhas and Bodhisattvas take on physical characteristics similar to those of ordinary beings for the purpose of delivering such beings
nirodha [nirodh]: control
nirvana [nirvaan]: Liberation; the final state into which beings enter when, becoming Enlightened, they are no longer bound by the consciousness of an illusory ego; release from samsara
nirvikalpa samadhi [nirvikulp sumaadhi]: the highest state of concentration, in which the soul loses all sense of being different from the universal Self, but a temporary state from which there is a return to ego-consciousness
nirvikappa [ ]: without the modifications of the mind
nisarga [ ]: nature
nischala bhava [nishchulaa bhuv]: steadfastness; Eternity
nishkama, niskama [nishkaam]: desirelessness
nishkama karma [nishkaam kurm]: acts done without a motive
nishta [nishtha]: abidance in firm meditation
nitya [same]: eternal
nitya siddha [nitya siddh]: ever present
nivritti [nivr^tti]: destruction; cessation of activity
nivritti marga [nivr^tti maarg]: path of renunciation
niyama [niyum]: law, rule, discipline as ordained for the second of eight yogic stages


om [same]: a mystic syllable, used as a mantra
owpacharika (aupacharika) [aupuchaarik]: in a worldly sense


padarthabhavini [pudaarthaa bhaavinee]: absolute nonperception of objects; one of the seven stages of enlightenment
padmasana [pudmaasun]: the 'lotus' yogic posture
panchakshari [punchaak^shaari]: a mantra of five syllables sacred to Siva
pandit [pundeet]: learned man; scholar; man of wisdom
para [puraa]: higher; supreme; other; in Tantricism, unmanifest sound
para bhakti [puraa bhukti]: supreme devotion
para nadi [puraa naadi]: a yogic nerve
para vibhuti [puraa vibhooti]: superior vibhuti
parabraham [purubruhm]: the Absolute
Parabrahman [ ]: the Supreme Absolute
param [purum]: transcendental
paramahamsa [purumuhums]: a sannyasin who has attained Self-realization
paramakash [purumukush]: the Absolute
paramapada [purumupaad]: Supreme state
paramarthika [paarumaarthik]: Absolute; true Self
paramarthika satyam (p. satyan) [paarumaarthik sutyum]: absolute reality
paramatma(n) [purumaatma(n)]: the Supreme Self; Universal Brahman
paramita [purumit]: a means of crossing to the further shore, thereby entering Nirvana
paranchi khani [puraanchi khaani]: outgoing
parantapa [puruntup]: Arjuna, as 'he who destroys his enemy'
pareccha [purechchhaa; conjunct 'ch' and 'chh', pronounced with no vowel between]: by another's will
parinama vada [purinaam vaad]: the theory of Brahman changing into the world
parinirvana [purinirvaan]: beyond nirvana; used to indicate that the concept of nirvana as the blissful opposite of samsara doesn't point to the final realization
paripurnam [puripoornum]: the perfect state
paroksha [purok^sh]: hearsay; indirect
phala [phul; NOT ful]: fruit; the result of an act
phala chaitanyam [phul chaitunyum]: knowledge
phala data [phul daataa]: dispenser of the results of our acts
phala sruti [phul sh^ruti]: description of the result of an act
pisacha(s) [pish^uchaa]: demon(s)
pooja (see puja)
poorna (see purna)
pradakshina [pruduk^shin]: going around a sacred person or place
pradeepta [prudeept]: shining brightly
prajna [praaj^na]: consciousness; awareness; highest wisdom, transcendent wisdom; also employed as a synonym for the universal 'substance'
prajnana [pruj^naan]: full consciousness
prajnana ghana [pruj^naan ghun]: Brahman, the Absolute; immutable Knowledge
prakriti [prukriti]: nature; primal substance out of which all things are created; Maya; causal matter; also called shakti
pralaya [pruluya]: complete merging; dissolution (of the world)
pramada [prumaad]: swerving from abidance in the Absolute
pramana [prumaan]: means of valid knowledge
pramata(r) [prumaat(ur)]: knower, cognizer
pramoda [prumod]: joy higher than moda
prana [praan]: life-force, breath, vital air that goes up
pranasakti [praanush^ukti]: the power of the vital forces
pranava [prunuv]: another term for Om
pranava japa [prunuv jup]: incantation of Om
pranayama [praanaayum]: breath control
prapatti [pruputti]: surrender
prapti [praapti]: attainment
prarabdha [praarubdh]: the part of one's karma (destiny) to be worked out in this life
prasad(a) [prusaad(a)]: divine blessing; food which has been offered to God and afterwards distributed among the devotees
prasthana traya [prusthaan truya]: the threefold canon of Vedanta (Upanishads, Brahma Sutras, and Bhagavad Gita)
pratibhasika satya [praatibhaasik sutya]: illusory reality as it appears to an individual
pratikam [pruteekum]: symbol
pratikriya [prutikriyaa]: remedy
pratyabhijna [prutyubhij^na]: recognition
pratyahara [prutyaahaar]: withdrawal of senses from objectivity; fifth rung in the Raja Yoga ladder
pratyaksha [prutyuk^sh]: direct, immediate
Pratyeka-Buddha [prutyek buddh]: one who achieves Enlightenment on his own and who does not then go forth to preach the Dharma
pravritti [pruvr^tti]: pursuing what is desirable
pravritti marga [pruvr^tti maarg]: path of action
prayaschitta [praayush^chitt]: a rite for expiating sin
prayatna [pruyutna]: proper and adequate effort
prema [prem]: divine love [for God]
preta [pret]: a hungry, tantalized ghost, led by evil karma into that sad but temporary state of existence
prithvi (prthvi) [pr^thvi]: earth
priya [same]: joy; dear
puja [pooj]: reverence, honour, adoration, or worship; ceremonial worship with flowers, water, etc.
punya [same]: merit
puraka [pooruk]: inhalation
purana [puraan]: old; eighteen ancient books of stories embodying religious symbolism, attributed to Vyasa
puri [puree]: city
puriashtaka [puriushtuk]: subtle body consisting of eight phases
purna (purnam) [poorn(uM)]: full; infinite; complete
purusha (purusa) [purush]: man; spirit, soul; applied sometimes to God as the living principle; the Self which abides in the heart of all things
purushakara [purushukaar]: personal effort
purushartha [purushaartha]: human ends; objectives worthy of human pursuit (dharma, artha, kama and moksha)
purushottama [ ]: Supreme Divine Being
purva [poorv]: previous
purva paksha [poorv puk^sh]: arguments advanced by the opponent
purva samskara [poorv sumskaar]: latent tendencies


Raja Yoga [raaj yog]: the principle system of Yoga as taught by Patanjali
rajas [rujus]: one of the three primal qualities - described as red, the principle of activity; energy; passion; restlessness
rajju-sarpa [rujju surp]: rope-snake; a rope looking like a snake in a dim light
randhra [ ]: aperature; see Brahmarandhra
rasa [rus]: bliss
rasasvada [rusaasvaad]: taste of bliss in the absence of thoughts
ravi marga [ruvi maarg]: path of the sun
rechaka [rechuk]: exhalation
rishi (rshi) [r^shi]: a seer; a sage
Rudra [rudruH]: Siva in his aspect as Destroyer
rupa [roop]: beautiful form


sabdanuviddha [sh^ubdunuviddh]: associated with sound
sad guru [sud guru]: true guru
Sada Siva [sudaa sh^iv]: Siva as eternal goodness
sadhak(a) [saadhuk]: a spiritual aspirant; one who follows a method of spiritual discipline; the stage following mumuksku, where the seeker becomes convinced that he is the beingness or consciousness
sadhana [saadhun]: method of spiritual practice; path
sadhana-chatushtaya [saadhun chutushtuya]: the four qualifications expected in an aspirant
sadhu [saadhu]: ascetic; sage; pious or righteous man; a sanyasin
sadhu seva [saadhu sev]: service rendered to sages
sadhya [ ]: thing to be accomplished
sadsisya [sudsh^ishya]: true disciple
sadyomukti [sudyomukti]: immediate Liberation
saguna [sugun]: with attributes
saguna upasana [sugun upaasun]: meditation on Brahman with attributes
Sagunabrahman [sugunubruhm]: the Absolute conceived of as endowed with qualities
sahaja [suhuj]: natural; one's natural state
sahaja jnani [suhuj j^naani]: sage in the state of sahaja nirvikalpa samadhi
sahaja nirvikalpa samadhi [suhuj nirvikulp sumaadhi]: natural state of absorption in the Self with no concepts
sahaja samadhi [suhuj sumaadhi]: samadhi which comes naturally and is present always
sahasradala [ ]: the thousand petalled lotus; center of illumination in crown of the head
sahasrara [suhusraar]: the highest yogic center located in the brain
sajatiya [sujaateeya]: of the same kind
sakama [sukaam]: with desire
sakshat [suk^shaat]: here and now
sakshatkaram [suk^shaatkaarum]: direct realization
sakshi(n) [suk^shi(n)]: witness; the Self
sakti (shakti) [sh^ukti]: power; energy; force
sakti pata [sh^ukti paat]: descent of divine power on a person
sama [sum]: equal, common
samadhi [sumaadhi]: advanced state of meditation; absorption in the Self; Oneness; the mind becoming identified with the object of meditation
samana [ ]: one of the ten vital airs
samanya [saamaanya]: common, general, ordinary
samasta [sumust]: whole
samatva [sumutva]: equality
sambodhi [sumbodhi]: Supreme Enlightenment
sambogakaya [ ]: the body in which Enlightened Beings enjoy the rewards of liberation from worldly things and in which they can appear to other beings in insubstantial form
samjna [sumj^na]: discernment
samjnana [sumj^naan]: awareness; perception
samkalpa(s) [sumkulp]: fancies
samrajya [saamraajya]: empire
samsara [sumsaar]: the realm of relativity, transience and illusion; the process of worldly life; the bondage of life, death and rebirth
samskara(s) [sumskaar]: innate tendencies; impressions created by previous actions and thoughts
samskrta [sumskr^t]: the impermanent; Chinese yu wei
samvid [ ]: true awareness
samvit [sumvit]: consciousness; knowledge
samyak-sambodhi [sumyuk sumbodhi]: Supreme Enlightenment
samyamana [ ]: one-pointedness of mind
sanchita (s. karma) [sunchit kurm]: accumulated karma of former births that still remains to be experienced
sandeha [sundeha]: doubt
sanga [sung]: association; brotherhood
sangsara [sumsaar]: see samsara
sankalpa [ ]: intention; thought; desire; imagination; volition, mental activity, tendencies and attachments
Sankhya [saankhya]: one of the six systems of Indian philosophy
sannidhi [sunnidhi]: presence
sannyasa (sanyasa) [sunnyaas]: asceticism, renunciation
sannyasasrama [sunnyusaash^rum]: the last of the four stations of life
sannyasi(n) [sunnyaasi(n)]: an ascetic; one who belongs to the fourth stage of life
santi [sh^aanti]: peace
santodanta [ ]: one who is calm and self-controlled
sanyasin [sunnyaasin]: see sannyasin
sarira [sh^ureer]: body
sariri [sh^ureeri]: dweller in the body
sarira traya [sh^ureer truya]: the three bodies, namely the physical, subtle and causal
sarupa [ ]: with form; having form
sarva [surv]: all
sarvajna [survuj^na]: omniscient
sarvajnatvam [survuj^nutvum]: omniscience
sarvatma bhava [survaatma bhaav]: abidance in Oneness
Sarvesvara [survesh^vur]: the supreme Lord
sastra (shastra) [sh^aastra]: scripture; science; a sacred treatise or a commentary on a sutra
sat [sut]: good; existence; being; reality
sat-chit-ananda [sut chit aanund]: being-consciousness-bliss
satsang(a) [sutsung]: association with the wise
sattva (satva, sattwa) [suttva]: purity; one of the three primal qualities of prakriti - described as white
sattvapatti [sutvaaputti]: realization; one of the seven stages of enlightenment
sattvic [saattvik]: pure
satya [sutya]: Truth; the real
savikalpa samadhi [suvikulp sumaadhi]: a state of concentration in which the distinction between the knower, knowledge and known is not yet lost
sayujya [saayujya]: union; identity
shadadhara [shudaadhaar]: the six yogic centers
Shakti [sh^ukti]: see sakti, prakriti; represented mythologically as the wife of a god; Reality; Self; Power of Creation
shastra [sh^aastra]: see sastra
siddha [same]: one who has acquired supernatural powers and is capable of working miracles; a perfected Yogi
siddhi [same]: supernatural power; realization; attainment
sila [sh^eel]: the moral precepts observed by Buddhism
sishya [sh^ishya]: disciple; fit student
Siva [sh^iv]: God as destroyer and restorer of worlds
Sivoham [sh^ivohum]: I am Siva
sloka [sh^lok]: a stanza in Sanskrit; a verse of praise
Skanda [skunduH]: younger son of Siva; leader of the divine hosts
skandha [ ]: one of the five components (skandhas) of personality; inherited tendencies, physical and mental
smriti [smr^ti]: memory; scriptures other than the Vedas
soham [sohum]: I am He (Brahman)
sparsa [spursh^]: touch
sphurana (sphurna) [sphurun]: manifestation; throbbing or breaking; bursting forth; vibration
sraddha [sh^ruddhaa]: faith; earnestness
sravaka [sh^ruvuk?]: one who approaches the Dharma as a result of hearing it preached
sravana [sh^ruvun]: hearing of the Truth, from the Guru
srishti drishti [sr^shti dr^shti]: gradual creation
srota [sh^rot]: hearer
srotra [sh^rotra]: ear
sruti [sh^ruti]: sacred text; Vedas, heard by sages in their transcendental state and transmitted to disciples by word of mouth
sthitaprajna [sthitupraaj^na?]: one established in wisdom
sthiti [same]: being; existing
sthula [sthool]: gross
sthula sarira [sthool sh^ureer]: physical body
stotram [stotrum]: hymn of praise
stuti [same]: devotional singing
subhechcha [sh^ubechchh; conjunct 'ch' and 'chh']: desire for enlightenment; one of the seven stages of enlightenment
suddha [sh^uddh]: pure
suddha sattva [sh^uddh suttva]: essentially pure
suddha sattva svarupa [sh^uddh suttva svuroop]: the form of purity
sukha [same]: happiness
sukha asana [sukh aasun]: easy and comfortable sitting posture
sukshma [sook^shm]: subtle
sukshma sarira [sook^shm sh^ureer]: subtle body
sunya [sh^oonya]: blank; the Void
sunyata [ ]: the emptiness of all separate things; the impermanence and unreality of all forms
sunyavadin [sh^oonuvaadin]: nihilist
sushumna (susumna) [sushumn]: one of the yogic nerves, through which the kundalini rises
sushupti (susupti) [sushupti]: dreamless sleep
sutra [sootra]: string; aphorism; actual teaching attributed to Gautama Buddha or very occasionally someone else
suvasana [suvaasunaa]: good tendency
svagata [svugut]: within itself
svami [svaami]: see swami
svapna [svupna]: dream; dreaming state
svarga [svurg]: heaven
svaroopa (swarupa) [svuroop]: essential nature; true nature of Being; real form, unconditioned by rajas (activity) and tamas (inertia)
svarupa nishta [svuroop nishtha]: abidance in the Self
swami [svaami]: mystic or yogi; one who is in control of himself; one's own master
swaraj [svuraaj]: independence
swatantra [svutuntra]: independence
swechcha [svechchh; conjunct 'ch' and 'chh']: of one's own will


tadakaranilai [tudaakaarunilai]: abiding in the form of That (the Self)
taijasa [taijus]: the individual being in dream; brilliance
tamas [tumus]: inertia; darkness; ignorance; ego; one of the three primal qualities - described as black
tanha [tunhaa]: thirst (for living)
tanmatra(s) [tunmaatra]: elements in their subtle forms
tanmaya [tunmuya]: full of the Self
tanmaya nishta [tunmuya nishtha]: abidance in the Self
tanumanasa [tunumaanus]: tenuous mind; one of the seven stages of enlightenment
tapas (tapasya) [tupus (tupusyaa)]: austerity
tapobhrashta [tupobhrusht]: one who has fallen away from his auterities
tapta-aya-pindavat [tupt uya pinduvut]: like a red-hot iron ball
Tat [tut]: That; Brahman
Tat tvam asi [tut tvum usi]: 'That thou art'
Tathagata [tuthaagut]: a Buddha, literally the Thus-Gone; the Suchness of all Dharmas
tathata [ ]: Suchness; essence of mind; Buddha-nature; Tao; true Self
tattva [tuttva]: truth; essence of a thing
tattva bhoda [tuttva bodh]: knowledge of the Truth
tattva jnana [tuttva j^naan]: knowledge of Brahman or Atman
tattvam [tuttvuM]: Reality; Truth
tejas [tejus]: effulgence
tejo rupa [tejo rup]: of the form of light
tejomaya [tejomuya]: full of light
tirtha [teertha]: a sacred river or tank
Tripitaka [ ]: the entire collection of Buddhist scriptures
triputi [same]: triad like seer, seen and seeing
turavu (Tamil) [turuvu]: renunciation
turiyatita (turiwateeta) [tureeyaatit]: beyond the fourth state; the Self
turya (turiya) [same]: the fourth state beyond waking, dreaming and deep sleep; ever present and unchanging witness-Consciousness
turyaga [turyugaa]: beyond words; one of the seven stages of enlightenment
tyaga [tyaag]: giving up


udana [udaan]: one of the vital airs, having its seat in the neck, controlling the intake of food and air
udasinam [udaaseenum]: indifference
upadesa [upudesh^]: instruction or guidance of a Guru
upadhi [upaadhi]: limiting adjunct; subtitle; body-related
Upanisad(s) [upunishud]: philosophical writings forming part of the Vedas; knowledge portion of the Vedas
upasaka [upaasuk]: meditator; layman who lives according to certain strict rules
upasana [upaasun]: meditation; contemplation
upasana sthana [upaasun sthaan]: seat of meditation
uttama [ ]: highest grade


vac (vak) [vaac]: speech
vachyartha [vaachyaartha]: literal meaning
vada [vaad]: theory; disputation
vaikhari [vaikhuri]: audible sound
Vaikuntha [vaikuntha]: the abode of Vishnu
vairagya [vairaagya]: dispassion; nonattachment
Vaishnavite (Vaishnav) [vaishnuv]: worshipper of Vishnu
vajra [vujra]: imperishable, real, ultimate; literally diamond or adamantine
Vajrayana [ ]: the school of Mahayana Buddhism prevalent in Tibet and Mongolia, commonly called Lamaism in the West
varistha [vurishtha]: the most excellent
varnasrama dharma [vurnaash^rum dhurm]: dharma of the various castes and stages of life
vasana [vaasun]: habit of the mind; latent tendency, impression or predisposition due to experiences of former lives; subtle desire
vasana kshaya [vaasun k^shuya]: cessation of vasanas
vastu [vustu]: substance; reality
vastutah [vustutuH]: in reality
Vasudeva [vaasudev]: Krishna as the son of Vasudeva, the Lord who created the world
vayu [vaayuH]: air; vital breath; the Wind god
Veda [ved]: sacred lore; scriptures revealed through the Rishis (Rig, Yajur, Sama and Atharva Vedas)
vedana [vedunaa]: reception of sensation
Vedanta [vedaant]: absolute Truth as established by the Upanishads, Brahma Sutras, and Bhagavad Gita as interpreted by Vyasa; the end or consummation of the Vedas
veena [veen]: a stringed instrument
vibhakti [vibhukti]: separation
vibhuti [vibhooti]: sacred ashes; God's glory; supernatural power
vichara [vichaar]: inquiry into the true nature of the Self
vichara marga [vichaar maarg]: spiritual path of inquiry
vicharana [vichaarun]: investigation; one of the seven stages of enlightenment
videha mukta [videha mukt]: a liberated being after he has left the body
videha mukti [videha mukti]: Self-realization after leaving the body
vidya [vidyaa]: knowledge (of Brahman)
vijatiya [vijaatiya]: of a different kind
vijnana [vij^naan]: spiritual knowledge; discriminating the real from the unreal; principle of pure intelligence
vijnanamaya kosa [vij^naanumuya kosh^]: sheath of the intellect
vijnanatma [vij^nunutma]: the ignorant self
vijnata [vij^naataa]: knower
vikalpa(s) [vikulp]: doubt(s)
vikshepa [vik^shep]: diversity
vikshipta [vik^shipt]: distracted
vinaya [vinuya]: the discipline practiced by Buddhist monks; humility
viparita [vipureet]: contrary
virat [viraat]: macrocosm; totality of gross beings; the physical world
virya [veerya]: zeal; vitality
visesha [vish^esh]: particular; special
vishaya [vishuya]: object
Vishnu [vishnu]: God as preserver
vishya vasana(s) [-?- vaasun]: predisposition toward sense enjoyments
visishta [vish^isht]: qualified
visishtadvaitin [vish^ishtaadvaitin]: one who believes in a modified form of non-duality
visranti [vish^raanti]: repose
visva [visva]: the individual being in the waking state; the all
visvarupa (v. darsana) [visvuroop dursh^un]: God seen as the universe
vivarta vada [vivurt vaad]: theory that Brahman appears as the world, soul and God, like a rope appears as a snake, without itself undergoing any change
vivechana [vivechun]: discrimination
viveka [vivek]: wisdom; discrimination between the Real and the unreal; discriminative inquiry
viyoga [viyog]: separation
vritti [vr^tti]: modification of the mind; mental concept; thought-wave
vyakta [ ]: the karma-bound individuality
vyakti [ ]: the transient personality
vyana [vyaan]: one of the ten vital airs, causing the circulation of the blood
vyaptam [vyaaptum]: pervaded
Vyasa [ ]: the great sage who wrote the Brahma Sutras
vyashti [vyushti]: part
vyavahara (vyavaharika) [vyuvuhaar (vyaavuhaarik)]: empirical
vyavahara satya [vyuvuhaar sutya]: phenomenal existence


yaga [yaag]: ritualistic sacrifice
yajna [yuj^na]: sacrifice
yama [ ]: self-control; the first rung in the ladder of eightfold yoga (abstention from lying, killing, theft, lust, covetousness etc.); also, the god of death (Yama)
yoga [yog]: union (with the Supreme); literally, a yoke or discipline; the technique of meditation whereby the individual brings himself into unity with the Ultimate Reality; the four paths to this union are jnana, the path of knowledge, karma, the path of action, bhakti, the path of devotion, and raja, the royal path, which is a synthesis of the other three; the philosophy of the sage Patanjali
yoga marga(s) [yog maarg]: yogic path(s)
yoga maya [yog maayaa]: magical power
yogabhrashta [yogubhrusht]: one who has slipped from yoga
yogarudha [yogaaroodh]: one who has attained yoga
yogi [same]: follower of a path of yoga
Yogiraja [yogiraaj]: king of yogis; Sri Vasudeva
yugapat srishti [yuguput sr^shti]: simultaneous creation


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